Note: Many important articles are contained in the books and special journal issues noted above, but are not listed below (to avoid duplication).

[AAPBioethics1995] American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics. Informed consent, parental permission, and assent in pediatric practice. Pediatrics 1995;95(2):314-7. Available online at;95/2/314.

[AAPGenetics2000] American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Genetics. Evaluation of the newborn with developmental anomalies of the external genitalia. Pediatrics 2000;106(1 Pt 1):138-42. Available online at;106/1/138.

[BAPS2001] British Association of Paediatric Surgeons Working Party on the Surgical Management of Children Born with Ambiguous Genitalia. Statement of the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons Working Party on the Surgical Management of Children Born with Ambiguous Genitalia. 2001. Available online at

[Baskin1999] Baskin L, Erol A, Li Y, Liu W, Kurzrock E, Cunha G. Anatomical studies of the human clitoris. Journal of Urology 1999;162(3 Part 2):1015-20.

[Bin-Abbas1999] Bin-Abbas B, Conte FA, Grumbach MM, Kaplan SL. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and micropenis: Why sex reversal is not indicated. Journal of Pediatrics 1999;134(5):579-83.

[Catlin1998] Catlin AJ. Ethical commentary on gender reassignment: A complex and provocative modern issue. Pediatric Nursing 1998;24(1):63-5+99.

[Creighton2002] Creighton S, Alderson J, Brown S, Minto CL. Medical photography: Ethics, consent, and the intersex patient. BJU Int 2002;89(1):67-71. Available online at

[Creighton2001b] Creighton S, Minto C, Steele S. Objective cosmetic and anatomical outcomes at adolescence of feminising surgery for ambiguous genitalia done in childhood. Lancet 2001;358(9276):124-5. Available online (with free subscription) at

[Crouch2004] Crouch N, Minto C, Laio L, Woodhouse C, Creighton S. Genital sensation after feminizing genitoplasty for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: A pilot study. BJU Int 2004;93(1):135-8. Available online at

[Eckman2001] Eckman MH. Patient-centered decision making: A view of the past and a look toward the future. Med Decis Making 2001;21(3):241-7.

[Foley1992] Foley S, Morley GW. Care and counseling of the patient with vaginal agenesis. The Female Patient 1992;17(October):73-80. Available from

[Frader2004] Frader J, Alderson P, et al. Health care professionals and intersex conditions. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158:424-8. Available online (with free subscription) at

[Greenberg1998] Greenberg JA. Defining male and female: Intersexuality and the collision between law and biology. Arizona Law Review 1998;41(2):265-328.

[Hester2004] Hester J. Intersex(es) and informed consent: How physicians’ rhetoric constrains choice. Theor Med Bioeth 2004;25(1):21-49. Available from

[ISNAFAQ2005] Intersex Society of North America. Frequently asked questions about intersex. 2005. Available online at

[Minto2003] Minto C, Liao L, Woodhouse C, Ransley P, Creighton S. The effect of clitoral surgery on sexual outcome in individuals who have intersex conditions with ambiguous genitalia: A cross-sectional study. Lancet 2003;361(9365):1252-7. Available online (with free subscription) at

[Reiner2004] Reiner W, Gearhart J. Discordant sexual identity in some genetic males with cloacal exstrophy assigned to female sex at birth. N Engl J Med 2004;350(4):333-41. Available online (with free subscription) at

[Schober1998a] Schober J. Feminizing genitoplasty for intersex. In Pediatric Surgery and Urology: Long Term Outcomes, Stringer M, Oldham K, Mouriquand P, Howard E, eds. London: W.B. Saunders; 1998:549-58.

[Schober2004] Schober J. Sexual quality of life in an intersexual population: A needs assessment. BJU Int 2004;93 Suppl 3:54-6. Available online (with free subscription) at

[Williams2002] Williams N. The Imposition of gender: Psychoanalytic encounters with genital atypicality. Psychoanalytic Psychology 2002;19(3):455-74. Available online at